How Many Years For A Master's Degree – (from Latin magister) is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities or colleges after completion of courses that demonstrate mastery or a higher-order perspective of a specific course or area of professional practice.
A master’s degree usually requires previous courses at the undergraduate level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the studied area, postgraduate students are expected to have advanced knowledge of a special degree of theoretical and applied topics; Higher order skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; And the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and independently.
How Many Years For A Master's Degree
The master’s degree goes back to the origins of European universities, when in 1233 the papacy decreed that anyone admitted to a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely at any other university. The original meaning of master’s degree was that a person admitted to a university with a degree (degree) master (i.e. teacher) was admitted to the same rank in other universities. This was gradually formalized as lictia docdī (license to teach). Originally, there was no distinction between master and doctor, but by the 15th century it had become customary in English universities to refer to teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors.
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Originally, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree was awarded for the Trivia course and the Master of Arts (MA) for the Quadrivium course.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the degree system consisted of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the lower faculties and bachelor’s and doctoral degrees in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master’s degrees (Magister Artium or Master of Arts) were awarded shortly after the founding of Harvard University.
In Scotland, pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while some MAs at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin were awarded without BA exams. By the end of the 17th century, its main purpose was to provide full membership of the university.
At Harvard, 1700 regulations require applicants for a master’s degree to pass a public examination.
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The 19th century saw a great expansion in the variety of postgraduate degrees awarded. At the beginning of the course, the only postgraduate degree was the MA, and it was usually awarded without further courses or examinations. In 1815 the degree of Master of Surgery was introduced by the University of Glasgow.
By 1861, it was adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it offered a Master of Surgery “similar to any in Europe.”
Although there is considerable doubt about the quality of Scottish degrees during this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh and Lord Chancellor, told the House of Lords, “In Surabaya the universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of time, after much work had been done. The university statutes were very strictly respected, however, as in Scotland, masters’ degrees were established at Oxford and Cambridge. It cannot be said that, without any residence, or without any kind of examination, in Scotland, all the laws which have enforced the conditions for the conferment of degrees are a dead letter.”
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It was not until 1837 that separate examinations for the M.A. in Gland were reintroduced at the newly founded University of Durham (as in the old English universities, though it was full membership), followed in 1840. The new University of London was empowered only by its charter to grant degrees by examination.
By mid-century, however, the second degree MA was again under threat, and in 1857 Durham moved automatically to award honors BAs, following other Scottish universities such as Oxbridge MA and Edinburgh. From 1858 the MA replaced the BA as its first degree.
At the same time, new universities were established around the British Empire via London, including the MA: University of Sydney in Australia and, in 1850, the University of Ques, Ireland, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Bombay). ), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
In the United States, a revival of master’s degrees began at the University of North Carolina in 1856, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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The idea that a master’s degree should be earned as a second degree was not well established until the 1870s, along with the doctoral degree.
Sometimes an MA is offered by graduation or by securitization in the same institution. For example, in Michigan the “In Course” MA was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the “On Exam” MA was introduced in 1859.
The most important postgraduate degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in 1858 in two forms: “in-course”, first given in 1859, and “in-examination”, first given in 1862. The last MS on the “course” was issued in 1876.
In England, however, the degree took some time to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Science in 1858, the University was granted a new charter which gave it the power “to confer the degrees of Bachelor, Master and Doctor in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music”.
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Although the MA was the standard Bachelor of Arts degree in Scotland, the same two degrees, again excluding the MA, were awarded in Edinburgh.
In 1862, Durham proposed that Masters degrees in theology and science be awarded (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, as opposed to the British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),
But its recommendations were not followed. In 1877, the Oxford Bachelor of Natural Sciences was awarded to students graduating from the Honors School of Natural Sciences, along with the MA and BA degrees.
But in 1880 the proposal to grant the degree of Master of Science was rejected, and the plan to make them full members of the University, to grant the degree of Master in Natural Science.
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The program appears to have been quietly abandoned and Oxford continues to offer BAs and MAs in the Department of Science.
At Victoria University, both the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durham’s MA, requiring further examination for ordinary undergraduates, but not for honours.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of postgraduate degrees in England: the Scottish MA, awarded as the first degree; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA candidates without further study for a limited period after their first degree; postgraduate degrees, which may be obtained by further study or by obtaining an honors degree (which in England involves further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); Further study-only postgraduate degrees (including all London postgraduate degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the practices of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs “foolish among academic scams” and “false degrees”.
“A Scotch MA is, at most, like a Glish BA,” the plaintiff’s letter pointed out. Defenders of the older universities argued that “the Cambridge M.A. did not pretend to be a reward for learning” and “it is quite absurd to describe one of their degrees as false, because other modern universities award the same degree for different reasons.
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Business Science (MCS), which was first offered in 1902. It was the first master’s degree in business, a precursor to the modern MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, establishing the Manchester Faculty of Commerce, offering undergraduate and postgraduate business degrees in 1903.
In the first half of the period, automatic master’s degrees for honors graduates disappeared as standard bachelor’s qualifications became standard in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which had an undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reinstated the BA as an undergraduate degree in arts, reintroducing the MA as its postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge kept their MAs but received many postgraduates.